Lime Mortar Research Development Innovation Projects Contract
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Current projects: (please feel free to add offers / update in comments below – and get promoted!)
Lime-based solid reactor for CO2 separation from exhaust gases with regenerative recovery of the enthalpy of reaction (2020-2022):
The lime and cement industries are responsible for around 5% of global CO2 emissions. About half of the CO2 comes from the product itself through the limestone decomposition CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2. This CO2 cannot be avoided through the use of renewable energies. Therefore the CO2 has to be captured. In the project, a solid reactor is being developed that works according to the calcium looping process. Here the exhaust gas is compressed for CO2 exothermic absorption (CaO + CO2 -> CaCO3) and the gas is expanded for endothermic calcination (CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2) with the release of CO2. As a result, the exothermic absorption (carbonization) takes place at a higher temperature level than the endothermic calcination. The heat released is stored regeneratively in the particles of the reactor and then used for calcination. In preliminary tests, 250 cycles were carried out according to this method without the material burning to death (continuously decreasing CO2 absorption). Compared to previous calcium looping processes, not only is dead burning avoided, but the enthalpy of reaction is also reused, so that oxyfuel firing for calcination and the inefficient generation of electricity for carbonization are no longer necessary. The FSt. 1 Reaction kinetic experiments carried out on an existing thermoreactor, the FSt. 2 develops a process model and the FSt. 3 shows the mode of operation with an existing semi-industrial shaft reactor.
L’AmmoRE – Ammonia Recovery with Lime / Ammonia recovery from fermentation products from biogas plants in the form of ammonia water using lime (2020-2022):
The biogas plants make a valuable contribution to the renewable energy mix in Germany. At the same time, however, they also face the problem of disposing of the nutrient-rich digestate. Due to tightening of the European and national legal situation, agricultural application without prior removal is only possible to a limited extent, which leads to increased costs for the plant operator. The problem is particularly pronounced in regions with high levels of livestock processing due to the already existing nutrient surplus. Above all, the high nitrogen content in the digestate has a limiting effect. This is where the presented project comes in. By means of a stripping system converted for the use of milk of lime, digestate of various compositions is denitrified, and thus a limed digestate is obtained, which can be used again as liquid farm manure. The ammonia obtained is processed directly into marketable ammonia water, which is used, for example, in analytical chemistry or in flue gas cleaning. As a result, SMEs (especially lime and cement manufacturers, biogas plant operators) benefit across all sectors from an increase in competitiveness, the development of new sales markets, the conversion / construction of stripping plants, the spreading of denitrified digestate and the expanded range of uses of lime milk. The concluding technology and economic feasibility study will address both a scale-up and the use of ammonia water in various industries.
By fully utilizing the digestate, the project makes a valuable contribution to the circular economy. At the same time, the production of ammonia is more energy-efficient and climate-neutral than conventional production using the Haber-Bosch process. The decentralized extraction of ammonia also helps to reduce the greenhouse gases caused by transport.
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We DO work on co2 reduction, older and current Projects:
Direct CO2 avoidance
LEILAC (Low Emissions Intensity Lime And Cement) has the potential of a technological breakthrough that can enable the European cement and lime industry to significantly reduce its emissions while maintaining or even increasing its international competitiveness. With the best technologies currently available in the cement and lime industries, there is no way to economically capture carbon. Therefore, the most practical approach to reducing these emissions for the cement and lime industries has been to increase the efficiency of the ovens and use alternative fuels. The direct CO2 separation offers a common platform for CCU and CCS in both the lime and cement industries and can make these industries future-proof.
The LEILAC technology should enable a direct separation of the carbon dioxide in order to efficiently separate the unavoidable process emissions that arise during the lime and cement production. This is made possible by the special shape of the furnace, in which the resulting process emissions from the limestone are separated from the remaining exhaust gas. This means that the technology has the potential to use renewable fuels to achieve the target reduction in emissions by 2050. There are already concrete plans to operate the LEILAC furnace purely electrically. This enables both direct avoidance of CO2 and efficient CO2 separation of the amount of CO2 that occurs.
Responsible use of natural resources and climate protection are central elements of a climate-neutral lime industry in 2050. As an indispensable basic industry, the lime industry is responsible for around 1.5% of the CO2 emissions of the German energy and industrial sector (UBA inventory report, 2017). About ⅔ of the CO2 is due to the raw material and cannot be avoided by using renewable energies in the combustion process. A CO2 separation with subsequent recycling (CCU) according to the idea of the circular economy or – if unavoidable – CO2 storage (CCS) is the declared goal for fulfilling the German climate protection plans.
To achieve this goal, a fixed bed reactor is being developed as part of an AiF-IGF project, with which CO2 can be separated from exhaust gases in a much more energy-efficient manner than with known processes. The new approach is that the exothermic carbonization (CO2 absorption: CaO + CO2 → CaCO3) is carried out at overpressure and the endothermic calcination (CaCO3 → CaO + CO2) at negative pressure. As a result, the carbonization takes place at a higher temperature level than the calcination. The enthalpy of reaction released during carbonization is stored regeneratively in the solid reactor and used for calcination. In preliminary tests, up to 250 cycles were carried out without a decrease in CO2 absorption. Compared to previous calcium looping processes, this dead burning is avoided and the enthalpy of reaction is reused, so that oxyfuel firing for calcination and the inefficient generation of electricity during carbonization are no longer necessary. Calculations show that only approx. 10 to 20% of the energy of oxyfuel combustion is required. In further project steps, after successful CO2 concentration and separation, the focus is on the identification of the most suitable CCU application, e.g. B. CO2 mineralization or methanation.
Carbonation and mineralization
As part of the AiF research project “ECO 2: Development of the limestone powder CO2 washing process – practical optimization and ecological assessment” (AiF-IGF No. 18560N), the CO2 separation at a coal-fired power station in Wilhelmshaven was investigated with the help of a semi-technical demonstration system. The CO2 scrubber simulated the naturally occurring carbonate weathering in a process-technically accelerated manner. The CO2 exhaust gas is passed through a limestone powder-water suspension inside the scrubber, whereby the CO2 is converted into water-soluble hydrogen carbonate. The mineralized water produced can then be used directly for water restoration and buffering. As part of the project, long-term simulations were also carried out to evaluate the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in water and the chemical-ecological effects on flora and fauna. The ECO-2 process thus contributes on the one hand to climate protection by avoiding CO2 emissions and on the other hand to environmental protection and sustainability through the component of water remediation through the introduction of the mineralized water.
In the planned follow-up project ECO 3, this process is to be used for sustainable water restoration of the newly created open-cast mining lakes in Lusatia. Most of these lakes are currently characterized by increased acid input from the surrounding rock and very low pH values, which prevents both tourist and normal use of the water. Our limestone meal CO2 washing process makes it possible to supply the lakes with acid buffers, enable sustainable use and permanently bind CO2 as hydrogen carbonate.
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